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Essay, term paper, research paper: History

❶Criticism, in the true sense of accurate testing and sifting, is one of the points which distinguish the moderns from the ancients; and criticism was developed by the process of assimilation, comparison, and appropriation, which was necessary in the growth of scholarship.

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While scholars during medieval period studied ancient Greek and Roman documents to learn about God and Christianity, scholars during the Renaissance period did more research on humanity. The Renaissance period marked the cultural awakening in the society involving renewal of learning, development of infrastructure and a gradual reform in education.

Though the Renaissance is considered as beginning of the modern age, it is important to realize that this idea was formulated to stress the uniqueness of modern European culture and a very important difference is the art. The Renaissance artists portrayed expressions of humanity and religion through their art while the earlier artists portrayed bible story.

The Renaissance was a time of cultural awakening for human beings as it propelled innovation and reforms in education apart from fostering individualism among the people. The medieval age was laden with superstitions and institutions while the Renaissance period was a great awakening where men questioned the legality of such institutions. Ginsburg essay sample Alexander the Great: Barrett theorized that printers in the fifteenth century printed on unsized paper, and that it was sized later.

In order to prove this theory, Barrett worked with a pigment media specialist conservator, Susan Buck, to do small sample analyses of the ink and sizing on contemporary printed sheets. Barrett then talked about his attempt to re-create the intense papermaking production rate used in the handpress period, which is typically estimated at sheets per day.

He calculated three staff members working with a backup team of eight helpers preparing fiber and hanging pressed paper to dry would need 80 pounds of rag beaten into pulp in advance. Putting in a ten hour day, by 6 pm they had produced only sheets. Why did they fail so dramatically? There seemed to be one main reason. Old rags beat and drain much more quickly he said. Barrett spoke about other lessons they have learned.

During the Renaissance, or "rebirth", of Europe wealth increased dramatically. The Crusades which preceded the Renaissance, provided Western Europe with new culture and products, such as silk. Merchants began trading with people from the East, which brought wealth and new kinds of goods to Europe. Slavery became re-introduced into society during the Renaissance and many Muslims worked as slaves in Italy.

Money lending and trade contributed to the excessive wealth of city-states in Italy. City-states possessed enough money for people to explore new kinds of art, philosophy, and government. People explored new areas and the use of maps increased. Access to literature increased due to the invention of the printing press.

Books became widespread and affordable to the general public. Education and literacy increased as literature became available in a variety of languages. People expressed their vies openly in their publications, which did not go over well with the Catholic Church.

In , the Holy See ordered that all books challenging papal authority must be burned. This order came too late however, and the spread of freethinking during the Renaissance continued despite the censorship from the church. The Religious establishment went through many changes during the Renaissance. People relied less on the church for guidance and focused more on their inner faith. Revolutionists challenged the doctrine of the Catholic Church, and new religions formed.

Many people resented the church for its practice of selling indulgences to raise money. In ,a man named Martin Luther led a revolt against the Catholic Church by posting a list of statements challenging its integrity. He started the Protestant Revolt by protesting against the churches beliefs. Protestantism spread quickly spread through Europe during the "s, and many people left the Catholic Church to follow Protestant teachings.

The Catholic Church realized that a change had to be made, and during the mid"s a movement called the Catholic Reformation took place.

Religious leaders formed the Council of Trent and banned the selling of indulgences. Catholics started new religious orders ,such as the Jesuits, in order to draw people back to Catholicism.

Their efforts paid off and many people reverted back to the Church, although Protestantism still remained strong. During the Renaissance people expressed individuality in their religious beliefs, ideas, and art. Artists made great advancements during the Renaissance. They began to use mathematics in their paintings to make things look proportionate and realistic.

Some used oil paints to enhance their art and give it texture. Many focused on painting realistic human forms. Architecture advanced with the help of famous architects such as Leonardo Da Vinci.

Wealthy patrons supported the advancement of art by devoting time and money to their own individual collections, and to the construction of buildings.

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Posts Thursday, December 11, Early Renaissance Paper Session I. Panel 1. “Into the Fold: Understanding Albrecht Dürer’s Meisterstiche Papers,” presented by Angela Campbell ¶ “Fifteenth-Century Papermakers and Printers: Negotiations and Innovations,” presented by Timothy Barrett.

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The scholarly journal of the Southeastern Renaissance Conference, Renaissance Papers, publishes both the best papers presented at the conference and excellent essays that were submitted for presentation but not selected because of the volume of papers we receive. Renaissance Papers is peer reviewed and is included in the MLA . - This paper will argue that Michelangelo was a true renaissance artist by sharing information about his life, artwork, and analysis. Michelangelo was born at Rome, in March 6, He was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance.