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E. Taking Notes

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❶Learning involves more than the receipt and the regurgitation of information. This kind of shallow transcription fails to promote a meaningful understanding or application of the information.

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2. Don’t write down too much
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1. Know what kind of ideas you need to record

In the study published in Psychological Science, Pam A. Mueller of Princeton University and Daniel M. Oppenheimer of the University of California, Los Angeles sought to test how note-taking by hand or by computer affects learning.

And that extra processing of the material that they were doing benefited them. Mueller and Oppenheimer cited that note-taking can be categorized two ways: Generative note-taking pertains to "summarizing, paraphrasing, concept mapping," while nongenerative note-taking involves copying something verbatim. And there are two hypotheses to why note-taking is beneficial in the first place.

The first idea is called the encoding hypothesis, which says that when a person is taking notes, "the processing that occurs" will improve "learning and retention. Because people can type faster than they write, using a laptop will make people more likely to try to transcribe everything they're hearing. So on the one hand, Mueller and Oppenheimer were faced with the question of whether the benefits of being able to look at your more complete, transcribed notes on a laptop outweigh the drawbacks of not processing that information.

On the other hand, when writing longhand, you process the information better but have less to look back at. In real classroom settings, however, students are often assessed days if not weeks after learning new material.

Thus, although laptop users may not encode as much during the lecture and thus may be disadvantaged on immediate assessments, it seems reasonable to expect that the additional information they record will give them an advantage when reviewing material after a long delay. Mueller and Oppenheimer included a study in which participants were asked to take notes by hand or by laptop, and were told they would be tested on the material in a week.

When participants were given an opportunity to study with their notes before the final assessment, once again those who took longhand notes outperformed laptop participants.

These findings hold important implications for students who use their laptops to access lecture outlines and notes that have been posted by professors before class. Because students can use these posted materials to access lecture content with a mere click, there is no need to organize, synthesize or summarize in their own words. Indeed, students may take very minimal notes or not take notes at all, and may consequently forego the opportunity to engage in the mental work that supports learning.

In the Mueller and Oppenheimer studies, all laptops were disconnected from the internet, thus eliminating any disruption from email, instant messaging, surfing, or other online distractions. Technology offers innovative tools that are shaping educational experiences for students, often in positive and dynamic ways.

The research by Mueller and Oppenheimer serves as a reminder, however, that even when technology allows us to do more in less time, it does not always foster learning.

Learning involves more than the receipt and the regurgitation of information. If we want students to synthesize material, draw inferences, see new connections, evaluate evidence, and apply concepts in novel situations, we need to encourage the deep, effortful cognitive processes that underlie these abilities. When it comes to taking notes, students need fewer gigs, more brain power. Are you a scientist who specializes in neuroscience, cognitive science, or psychology?

Notetaking is the process of extracting only the information that answers your research question or supports your working thesis directly. Notes can be in one of three forms: It's a good idea to come up with a system-- you might simply label each card or note "s" "p" or "q"--as a way of keeping track of the kind of notes you took from a source. Also, a direct quotation reproduces the source's words and punctuation exactly, so you add quotation marks around the sentence s to show this.

Remember it is essential to record the exact page numbers of the specific notes, since you will need them later for your documentation. Work carefully to make sure you have recorded the source of your notes, and the basic information you will need when citing your source, to save yourself a great deal of time and frustration--otherwise you will have to make extra trips to the library when writing your final draft. While doing your research you will be making connections and synthesizing what you are learning.

Some people find it useful to make "idea cards" or notes in which they write out the ideas and perceptions they are developing about their topic. It may have struck you that you just read a lot of "re" words: That's right; working with your notes essentially means going back and reviewing how this "new" information fits with your own thoughts about the topic or issue of the research.

Grouping your notes should enable you to outline the major sections and then the paragraph of your research paper.

Don't want to cite by hand?

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The Cornell note-taking method can be applied to taking notes for research. The method helps you retain information. The Cornell system is done on regular notebook paper .

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Steps in Writing a Research Paper; Taking Notes; Taking Notes How to Take Notes. First of all, make sure that you record all necessary and appropriate information: author, title, publisher, place of publication, volume, span of pages, date. It's probably easiest to keep this basic information about each sources on individual 3x5 or 4x6 notecards.

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Research Paper: Take Notes. After you've gathered your sources, begin reading and taking notes. Use 3 x 5 index cards, one fact or idea per card. Taking Purposeful Research Notes research paper; it is even more important than the actual writing of the paper. Why? Because having useful, organized notes This is because the process of taking notes is time-consuming and arduous, and, especially for many students with learning disabilities, the idea of writing down a significant.

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You will use research note cards to collect all the information necessary to write your term paper--which includes the details you need for your bibliography notes. You should take extreme care as you create these note cards, because any time you leave out a single detail, you are creating more work for yourself. If you take notes efficiently, you can read with more understanding and also save time and frustration when you come to write your paper. These are three main principles.