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Who ran against Ulysses S. Grant for President in 1868?

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❶In October , Grant traveled to Utah and was surprised that the Mormons treated him kindly. University of North Carolina Press.

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Ulysses Grant’s Early Years

After serving two terms, Grant retired but then sought the nomination of the Republican Party again in He did not get the nomination. In retirement, he went bankrupt. To provide for his family, he began to write his memoirs. He developed cancer but managed to survive long enough to finish his writing which earned him some literary fame and provided his family about half a million dollars.

Who was Ulysses S. He was dumped from the ticker due to suspicion of being part of the Credit Mobilier affair. Henry Wilson of Mass. During Grant's second term, Henry Wilson, served for two years until his death November 22, and was not replaced leaving the Vice-Presidency vacant for two years. What kind of president was Ulysses S.

He depended on other political party members with decisions because he had no political experience whatsoever. Grant a good president? Technically, no he wasn't. He was a good general but he just didn't have the qualifications to be a good president. Grant a vice president.? Grant was never a Vice President. Grant do after he was president? He was mainly engaged in writing his Personal Memories also in order to restore his military reputation, which had been harmed by the criticisms and sectarian actions carried on by some former Confederates personalities and military leaders, the prominent of whom was Jubal A.

They started to attack Grant as general some 5 years after the end of Civil War, mainly concentrating their blames upon Grant's strategy and behaviour both as general and Commander in Chief during the Overland Campaign.

The more or less hidden goal was to undermine Grant's military reputation and exalt that of R. Lee who, in their opinion would have been the winner of that campaign hadn't Grant had an enormous superiority in terms of men and materials. That discredit campaign was carried on for about 15 years. Grant didn't react but some of his friends and former colleagues did and the polemic spread out abroad in such a deceitful way that he felt that the measure was full to the brim.

He didn't decide to personally intervene in a polemic way but writing down his memories based upon the real facts, as far as possible supported by documentary evidence and not by theories, opinions and half-thruths as mainly did by his former opponents. The Personal Memories were successful received by the public and undoubtedly restored his honour and his military reputation thanks also to the fine, calm and "neutral" prose that Grant made us of.

The debates about that war and its prominent protagonists hasn't ceased yet. What year was Ulysses S. Grant from March 4, to March 4, What was Ulysses S Grants job before presidency? He sold leather and harness and tanned hides.

Grant run for president? Grant achieved fame by winning the Civil War as the its commanding general. He then served in Washington was the acting Secretary of War and people starting urging him to run for President. There were no other strong candidates, so Grant agreed to run and won easily for two terms. Grant do after his presidency? He was still popular and well-known all over the world after heleft office. He took a long world tour and was feted at most of thecapitals of the word.

Soon after he got home, he found t he had throat cancer and wrotehis memoirs which give a very useful and clear account of hisservice as a general in the Civil War. He barely finished before hedied. Grant do as president? Grant was a great military leader, and anhonest President of the United States. However, Grant's presidencywas clouded by disgrace and dishonesty.

Grant was slow to realizethat some persons who pretended to be his friends could not betrusted. Several of his major appointees became involved inscandals. But Grant was so honest that few historians believe hecould have been involved personally. Grant's Administration worked to bring the North and South closertogether. It helped to persuade Congress to pardon many Confederateleaders and tried to limit the use of federal troops in the South. Grant also tried to maintain the rights of Southern Blacks.

He usedfederal troops to protect Blacks from the Ku Klux Klan and otherWhite groups that organized in the South to keep Blacks fromvoting. In and , Congress passed three force bills toenforce the voting rights of Blacks. During Grant's second Administration, there was the Panic of In September of , several important Eastern banks failed, and afinancial panic swept the country.

Hardest hit by the panic werebankers, manufacturers, and farmers in the South and West. Fromthis a new political party was organized, and was called theGreenback Party. This party and other groups demanded an inflationof the nation's currency to ease the depression. But,Grant vetoed the bill. Why was Ulysses S. Grant a hero in the US? Grant enforced laws with the FBI? Grant served as President of the US from to What date did Ulysses S.

Grant was inaugurated as the 18th U. President on March 4, He served two terms and was succeeded by Rutherford B. Hayes on March 4, Grant president when he died? No, he died a few years later - of throat cancer, probably brought on by stress after he was ruined by fraudulent Directors of a Bank who were hiding behind his respectability. The Republicans were in a strong position because the Democratic party split just before the Civil War and three of the Southern states were not allowed to vote.

Also many Southerners were not allowed to vote and the newly freed blacks tended to vote Republican. However, the Republicans had lost Lincoln and the incumbent Johnson was unpopular, so they needed a nominee with name recognition and Grant filled the bill as the winning general in the war and a great hero in the North.

What was the year Ulysses S. Grant a bad president? Did anything happen in when Ulysses S. Grant was president from The year was the year of his death from throat cancer, probably brought on by stress, following a scandalous fraud - not involving him - at a bank of which he was a director. In his last weeks, he was struggling to write his memoirs, so that his family would have something to live on after his death.

In this, he was successful. He managed to complete the book, just days before he died. It was a surprisingly good book, from a man who did not look or sound like an author, and it sold very well for years. Grant why did he become a president? Because he was a popular war-hero who had saved the country. He was also a man of shrewd judgment and trustworthiness. What are facts about president Ulysses S. He liked a drink or two - and if was one too many, Sherman used to cover for him.

Grant fulfill his roles as a president? He was a pretty good President. He was fair to the South andpushed for black rights. He remained popular, was elected twice andconsidered seriously for a third term. He was honest and workedhard to be a good leader. Some of his appointments turned out to becrooks. He tended to trust people. What job did Ulysses S. Grant became the commanding general of the US Army in March When the Civil War ended a year later, he remained in this position until he was sworn in as president.

When Grant became president Sherman was promoted to commanding general of the army, and held the post until , then Sheridan had the job until Grant a president before or after the civil war? After - as a reward for saving the Union on the battlefield, rather than any tribute to his political gifts. Before the war, he was an unknown, indeed virtually unemployed. Grant president after the civil war? Grant was not nationally known until he became famous as the commander of the Union army which won the Civil War.

His success in the military is what catapulted him into the presidency. What was president Ulysses S. Virtually all of Grant's business and farming ventures failed. When he was 39, he had lost virtually all of his money and had to beg his father for a job.

Grant important while he was a president? There were two main divisive issues in The first was the continued Reconstruction of the South. The Democrats advocated allowing former Confederate soldiers to hold elective offices, and the Republicans endorsed the proposed Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution which allowed African Americans to vote. The other controversial issue concerned the redemption of war bonds either in gold or paper money known as greenbacks.

The greenbacks were known as "cheap money" and would be inflationary. The Republicans wanted to pay the redemption of war bonds only with gold, a position attractive to investors and bankers.

Democrats, ignoring the politically damaged incumbent president, Andrew Johnson, who had returned to the party, nominated Horatio Seymour for the presidency, along with Francis P.

Blair as his running mate. Seymour was a wealthy conservative who was criticized by the GOP for weakness during the war and favoring the anti-war Copperheads. The campaigning was nasty, as the Republicans waved the "bloody shirt" of treason against the Democrats-as-Copperheads. Neither candidate actively campaigned, as was the custom at the time. Grant issued a public apology to Jewish voters for his General Order No.

Grant won an overwhelming Electoral College victory, receiving votes to Seymour's Grant also received His margin of victory was enhanced by the fact that six southern states were controlled by Republicans and many ex-Confederates were still prevented from voting. At age forty-six, he was the youngest president yet elected. The New York Times favorably compared it to Lincoln's second inaugural address and praised his cabinet selections. When Grant first moved into the White House, he had a statue of Thomas Jefferson , the third president, removed from the grounds and returned to the Capitol Rotunda.

Although some historians view Grant's cabinet as being mediocre, according to biographers Jean Edward Smith and Ron Chernow , it had distinguished members, including former statesmen. Grant chose two close friends for important posts: Washburne for Secretary of State and John A. Rawlins as Secretary of War. Washburne was replaced by conservative New York statesman Hamilton Fish. Rawlins died in office after serving only a few months, replaced by William W.

Stewart , who was found ineligible and replaced by Representative George S. Boutwell , a Massachusetts Radical Republican. Borie was appointed Secretary of Navy, who was reluctant to accept, soon resigned due to poor health and was replaced by a relative unknown, George M.

Robeson , a former brigadier general. Grant and Sumner were often at odds with each other on matters of foreign policy and political patronage. Sumner followed his own foreign policy and detested Grant's practice of nepotism in making political appointments. Hinsdale, described the Grant Administration as "a most extraordinary array of departures from the normal course" and a "military" rule, in close connection with a select Republican Senatorial group.

In March , President Grant made it known he desired the Tenure of Office Act repealed, stating it was a "stride toward a revolution in our free system". The Tenure of Office Act was passed by Congress in , sponsored by Radical Republicans, to curb the power of the President Andrew Johnson in making government office appointments. The controversial law had been invoked during the impeachment trial of Johnson in On March 5, , a bill was brought before Congress to repeal the act, but Senator Charles Sumner was opposed, unwilling to give Grant a free hand in making appointments.

Grant, to bolster the repeal effort, declined to make any new appointments except for vacancies, until the law was overturned, thus, agitating political office seekers to pressure Congress to repeal the law. Under national pressure for governmental reform, a compromise was reached and a new bill was passed that allowed the President to have complete control over removing his own cabinet, however, government appointees needed the approval of Congress within a thirty-day period.

Grant, who did not desire a party split over the matter, signed the bill; afterward, he received criticism for not getting a full repeal of the law. The unpopular measure was completely repealed in During Reconstruction, Freedmen freed slaves , were given the vote by Congress and became active in state politics; fourteen were elected to Congress. In state government they were never governor but did become lieutenant governors or secretaries of state. They formed the voting base of the Republican party along with some local whites called " Scalawags " and new arrivals from the North called " Carpetbaggers ".

Most Southern whites opposed the Republicans; they called themselves "Conservatives" or " Redeemers ". Grant repeatedly took a role in state affairs; for example on December 24, , he established federal military rule in Georgia and restored black legislators who had been expelled from the state legislature.

Most historians in the 21st century consider Reconstruction ended in failure and the north had given up on protecting the civil rights of African Americans. However, historian Mark Summers in has argued that:. Other matters during Reconstruction concerned polygamy , women's suffrage, anti-obscenity, and federal establishment of Holidays.

According to biographer, William S. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office, there were indictments against Klan members with over convictions from the Department of Justice.

By , there were indictments and convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York.

The result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South. Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. Williams , in December , continued to prosecute the Klan throughout until the Spring of during Grant's second term in office.

On June 28, , Grant approved and signed legislation that made Christmas , or December 25, a legal public Holiday within Washington D.

On July 14, , Grant signed into law the Naturalization Act of that allowed persons of African descent to become citizens of the United States. This revised an earlier law, the Naturalization Act of that only allowed white persons of good moral character to become U. The law also prosecuted persons who used fictitious names, misrepresentations, or identities of deceased individuals when applying for citizenship. To add enforcement to the 15th Amendment, Congress passed an act that guaranteed the protection of voting rights of African Americans; Grant signed the bill, known as the Force Act of into law on May 31, This law was designed to keep the Redeemers from attacking or threatening African Americans.

This act placed severe penalties on persons who used intimidation, bribery, or physical assault to prevent citizens from voting and placed elections under Federal jurisdiction. On March 20, Grant told a reluctant Congress the situation in the South was dire and federal legislation was needed that would "secure life, liberty, and property, and the enforcement of law, in all parts of the United States. Although sensitive to charges of establishing a military dictatorship, Grant signed the bill into law on April 20, , after being convinced by Secretary of Treasury, George Boutwell , that federal protection was warranted, having cited documented atrocities against the Freedmen.

The Act also empowered the president "to arrest and break up disguised night marauders ". The actions of the Klan were defined as high crimes and acts of rebellion against the United States.

The Ku Klux Klan consisted of local secret organizations formed to violently oppose Republican rule during Reconstruction; there was no organization above the local level. Wearing white hoods to hide their identity the Klan would attack and threaten Republicans.

Scott , who was mired in corruption charges, allowed the Klan to rise to power. There was no response, and so on October 17, , Grant issued a suspension of habeas corpus in all the 9 counties in South Carolina. Grant ordered federal troops in the state who then captured the Klan; who were vigorously prosecuted by Att.

With the Klan destroyed other white supremacist groups would emerge, including the White League and the Red Shirts. Texas was readmitted into the Union on March 30, , Mississippi was readmitted February 23, , and Virginia on January 26, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be readmitted into the Union on July 15, All members of the House of Representatives and Senate were seated from the 10 Confederate states who seceded.

Technically, the United States was again a united country. To ease tensions, Grant signed the Amnesty Act of on May 23, , that gave amnesty to former Confederates. This act allowed most former Confederates, who before the war had taken an oath to uphold the Constitution of the United States, to hold elected public office. Only former Confederates remained unpardonable and therefore forbidden to hold elected public office. This lack of protection was influenced by Grant's son, then West Point cadet Frederick Dent Grant , who participated in the hazing against Smith.

Ruger , however, was appointed Superintendent of West Point in , reformed the Academy; having reduced the amount of hazing of cadets by and made strong efforts to eradicate the "discreditable" practice. Flipper , who was admitted to the Academy in , became the first to graduate from the Academy in Mormons who practiced polygamy in Utah, for the most part, resisted the Morrill law and the territorial governor. Tensions began as early as , when Mormons in Ogden, Utah began to arm themselves and practice military drilling.

Young's attorney stated that Young had no intention to flee the court. Other persons during the polygamy shut down were charged with murder or intent to kill. In March , anti-obscenity moralists, led by the YMCA 's Anthony Comstock , easily secured passage of the Comstock Act which made it a federal crime to mail articles "for any indecent or immoral use".

Grant signed the bill after he was assured that Comstock would personally enforce it. Comstock went on to become a special agent of the Post Office appointed by Secretary James Cresswell.

Comstock prosecuted pornographers, imprisoned abortionists, banned nude art, stopped the mailing of information about contraception, and tried to ban what he considered bad books. During Grant's presidency the early Women's suffrage movement led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton gained national attention. Anthony lobbied for female suffrage, equal gender pay, and protection of property for women who resided in Washington D. Arnell introduced a bill, coauthored by suffragist Bennette Lockwood , that would give women federal workers equal pay for equal work.

Grant's campaign slogan, "Let us have peace," defined his policy toward reconstructing the South and opening a new era in relations with the western Indian tribes. In a major address, Grant stated: No matter what ought to be the relations between such settlements and the aborigines, the fact is they do not get on together, and one or the other has to give way in the end.

A system which looks to the extinction of a race is too abhorrent for a Nation to indulge in without entailing upon the wrath of all Christendom, and without engendering in the Citizen a disregard for human life, and the rights of others, dangerous to society. I see no remedy for this except in placing all the Indians on large reservations The goal of his "peace policy" was to minimize military conflict with the Indians, looking forward to "any course toward them which tends to their civilization and ultimate citizenship".

Indians were to stay on reservations where they would receive government subsidies and training supervised by religious denominations. Indians were no longer allowed to engage in raids or send war parties off the reservations; the Army's job was to force them back. The goal was to assimilate the Indians into American society; any Indian could leave the reservation at any time and join the larger society, and have full citizenship.

The Indians on reservations were made U. Grant's Peace Policy was a sharp reversal of federal policy toward Native Americans. The president lobbied, though not always successfully, to preserve Native American lands from encroachment by the westward advance of pioneers.

The economic forces of western expansionism led to conflicts between Native Americans, settlers, and the U. Native Americans were increasingly forced to live on reservations. In , Grant appointed his aide General Ely S.

During Parker's first year in office, the number of Indian Wars per year dropped by 43 from to Grant held no personal animosity towards Native Americans and personally treated them with dignity. At their second meeting on May 8, Red Cloud informed Grant that Whites were trespassing on Native American lands and that his people needed food and clothing.

Out of concern for Native Americans, Grant ordered all Generals in the West to "keep intruders off by military force if necessary". To prevent Native American hostilities and wars, Grant lobbied for and signed the Indians Appropriations Act of — This act ended the governmental policy of treating tribes as independent sovereign nations.

Native Americans would be treated as individuals or wards of the state and Indian policies would be legislated by Congressional statutes. Historians have debated issues of "paternalism" and "colonialism" but have glossed over the significance of contingencies, inconsistencies, and political competition involved in forging a substantive federal policy, according to scholar David Sim He examined the peace policy, emphasizing incoherence in its formulation and implementation.

While the Grant administration focused on well-meaning but limited goals of placing "good men" in positions of influence and convincing native peoples of their fundamental dependency on the US government, attempts to create a new departure in federal-native relations were characterized by conflict and disagreement.

According to Sim, The muddled creation of what has become known as the peace policy thus tells much about the varied and divergent attitudes Americans had toward the consolidation of their empire in the West following the Civil War. Grant appointed volunteer members who were "eminent for their intelligence and philanthropy"; a previous commission had been set up under the Andrew Johnson Administration in Baker killed tribal members, mostly women and children, Grant was determined to divide Native American post appointments "up among the religious churches"; by , 73 Indian agencies were divided among religious denominations.

In , the implementation of the policy involved the allotting of Indian reservations to religious organizations as exclusive religious domains. Of the 73 agencies assigned, the Methodists received fourteen; the Orthodox Friends ten; the Presbyterians nine; the Episcopalians eight; the Roman Catholics seven; the Hicksite Friends six; the Baptists five; the Dutch Reformed five; the Congregationalists three; Christians two; Unitarians two; American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions one; and Lutherans one.

The distribution caused immediate dissatisfaction among many groups who claimed that they had been slighted or overlooked. The selection criteria were vague and some critics saw the Peace Policy as violating Native American freedom of religion.

Among the Roman Catholics, this dissatisfaction led to the establishment of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions in The Peace Policy remained in force until , when the government heeded the protests of religious organizations whose missionaries had been removed from reservations on which they had not been assigned.

On taking office Grant's first move was signing the Act to Strengthen the Public Credit, which the Republican Congress had just passed. It ensured that all public debts, particularly war bonds, would be paid only in gold rather than in greenbacks. On May 19, , Grant protected the wages of those working for the U. In , a law was passed that reduced the government working day to 8 hours; however, much of the law was later repealed that allowed day wages to also be reduced.

To protect workers Grant signed an executive order that "no reduction shall be made in the wages" regardless of the reduction in hours for the government day workers. Treasury Secretary George S. Boutwell reorganized and reformed the United States Treasury by discharging unnecessary employees, started sweeping changes in Bureau of Printing and Engraving to protect the currency from counterfeiters , and revitalized tax collections to hasten the collection of revenue.

These changes soon led the Treasury to have a monthly surplus. The New York Tribune wanted the government to buy more bonds and greenbacks and the New York Times praised the Grant administration's debt policy. The cost of collecting taxes fell to 3. Grant reduced the number of employees working in the government by 2, persons from 6, on March 1, , to 3, on December 1, In a rare case of preemptive reform during the Grant Administration, Brevet Major General Alfred Pleasonton was dismissed for being unqualified to hold the position of Commissioner of Internal Revenue.

Treasury Secretary George Boutwell promptly stopped the refund and personally informed Grant that Pleasonton was incompetent to hold office. Refusing to resign on Boutwell's request, Pleasonton protested openly before Congress. Grant removed Pleasonton before any potential scandal broke out. The foreign-policy of the Administration was generally successful, except for the attempt to annex Santo Domingo.

The annexation of Santo Domingo was Grant's "not unrealistic" effort to relieve the plight of blacks in the South during Reconstruction and was a first step to end slavery in Cuba and Brazil. Issues regarding the Canadian boundary were easily settled. The achievements were the work of Secretary Hamilton Fish , who was a spokesman for caution and stability.

A poll of historians has stated that Secretary Fish was one of the greatest Secretaries of States in United States history. Hayes Cabinet until March 12, In , Grant proposed to annex the independent largely black nation of the Dominican Republic , then known as Santo Domingo. Previously in , President Andrew Johnson had attempted to annex the Dominican Republic and Santo Domingo, but the House of Representatives defeated two resolutions for the protection of the Dominican Republic and Santo Domingo and for the annexation of the Dominican Republic.

In July Grant sent Orville E. On January 10, , the Santo Domingo treaty was submitted to the Senate for ratification. Despite his support of the annexation, Grant made the mistakes of not informing Congress of the treaty or encouraging national acceptance and enthusiasm.

By providing a safe haven for the freedmen, he believed that the exodus of black labor would force Southern whites to realize the necessity of such a significant workforce and accept their civil rights. Grant believed the island country would increase exports and lower the trade deficit. He hoped that U. Charles Sumner , recommended against treaty passage. Sumner, the leading spokesman for African American civil rights, believed that annexation would be enormously expensive and involve the U.

On June 30, , the Santo Domingo annexation treaty failed to pass the Senate; 28 votes in favor of the treaty and 28 votes against. Hamilton Fish, was secretly giving information to Sen.

Sumner on state department negotiations. Grant was determined to keep the Dominican Republic treaty in the public debate, mentioning Dominican Republic annexation in his December State of the Union Address. Grant was able to get Congress in January to create a special Commission to investigate the island. African American leaders were upset and the issue of Douglass not being invited to the White House dinner was brought up during the Presidential election by Horace Greeley.

Unable constitutionally to go directly after Sen. Morton of Indiana, giving in to Fish's demands that Cuba rebels be rejected, and moving his Southern patronage from the radical blacks and carpetbaggers who were allied with Sumner to more moderate Republicans. This set the stage of the Liberal Republican revolt of , when Sumner and his allies publicly denounced Grant and supported Horace Greeley and the Liberal Republicans. The investigation had initially been called to settle a dispute between an American businessman Davis Hatch against the United States government.

Hatch had claimed that the United States had failed to protect him from imprisonment. The majority Congressional report dismissed Hatch's claim and exonerated both Babcock and Ingalls. The Hatch incident, however, kept certain Senators from being enthusiastic about ratifying the treaty. The Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule, called by historians the Ten Years' War , gained wide sympathy in the U. Juntas based in New York raised money, and smuggled men and munitions to Cuba, while energetically spreading propaganda in American newspapers.

The Grant administration turned a blind eye to this violation of American neutrality. Fish, however, wanted stability and favored the Spanish government, without publicly challenging the popular anti-Spanish American viewpoint. They reassured European governments that the U. Grant and Fish gave lip service to Cuban independence, called for an end to slavery in Cuba, and quietly opposed American military intervention. Fish, worked diligently against popular pressure, and was able to keep Grant from officially recognizing Cuban independence because it would have endangered negotiations with Britain over the Alabama Claims.

Grant and Fish did not succumb to popular pressures. Grant's message to Congress urged strict neutrality not to officially recognize the Cuban revolt, which eventually petered out. Historians have credited the Treaty of Washington for implementing International Arbitration to allow outside experts to settle disputes. Grant's able Secretary of State Hamilton Fish had orchestrated many of the events leading up to the treaty. Previously, Secretary of State William H. These damages were collectively known as the Alabama Claims.

These ships had inflicted tremendous damage to U. Washington wanted the British to pay heavy damages, perhaps including turning over Canada. In April , the U. Senate overwhelmingly rejected a proposed treaty which paid too little and contained no admission of British guilt for prolonging the war.

Senator Charles Sumner spoke up before Congress; publicly denounced Queen Victoria ; demanded a huge reparation; and opened the possibility of Canada ceded to the United States as payment. The speech angered the British government, and talks had to be put off until matters cooled down. A joint high commission was created on February 9, , in Washington, consisting of representatives from both Britain and the United States. The commission created a treaty where an international Tribunal would settle the damage amounts; the British admitted regret, not fault, over the destructive actions of the Confederate war cruisers.

Grant approved and signed the treaty on May 8, ; the Senate ratified the Treaty of Washington on May 24, The Tribunal met in Geneva, Switzerland. The panel of five international arbitrators included Charles Francis Adams , who was counseled by William M.

Evarts , Caleb Cushing , and Morrison R. A primary role of the United States Navy in the 19th century was to protect American commercial interests and open trade to Eastern markets, including Japan and China. Korea had excluded all foreign trade and, the U. The long-term goal for the Grant Administration was to open Korea to Western markets in the same way Commodore Matthew Perry had opened Japan in by a Naval display of military force. The fleet included the Colorado , one of the largest ships in the Navy with 47 guns, 47 officers, and a man crew.

While waiting for senior Korean officials to negotiate, Rogers sent ships out to make soundings of the Salee River for navigational purposes. The American fleet was fired upon by a Korean fort, but there was little damage. Rogers gave the Korean government ten days to apologize or begin talks, but the Royal Court kept silent.

After ten days passed, on June 10, Rogers began a series of amphibious assaults that destroyed 5 Korean forts. These military engagements were known as the Battle of Ganghwa. Several hundred Korean soldiers and three Americans were killed. Korea still refused to negotiate, and the American fleet sailed away. The Koreans refer to this U. Grant defended Rogers in his third annual message to Congress in December After a change in regimes in Seoul, in , the U.

Organized exploration of the upper Yellowstone River began in fall when the Cook—Folsom—Peterson Expedition made a month-long journey up the Yellowstone River and into the geyser basins. In , the somewhat more official Washburn—Langford—Doane Expedition explored the same regions of the upper Yellowstone and geyser basins, naming Old Faithful and many other park features.

Langford brought increased public awareness to the natural wonders of the region. The expedition party was composed of 36 civilians, mostly scientists, and two military escorts. Hayden's published reports, magazine articles, along with paintings by Moran and photographs by Jackson convinced Congress to preserve the natural wonders of the upper Yellowstone.

Clagett of the Montana Territory , for the establishment of a park at the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. Hayden's influence on Congress is readily apparent when examining the detailed information contained in the report of the House Committee on Public Lands: The bill was approved by a comfortable margin in the Senate on January 30, , and by the House on February It established the Yellowstone region as the nation's first national park, made possible by three years of exploration by Cook-Folsom-Peterson , Washburn-Langford-Doane , and Hayden The Yellowstone Act prohibited fish and game, including buffalo, from "wanton destruction" within the confines of the park.

However, Congress did not appropriate funds or legislation for the enforcement against poaching; as a result, Secretary Delano could not hire people to aid tourists or protect Yellowstone from encroachment. As the Indian wars ended, Congress appropriated money and enforcement legislation in , signed into law by President Grover Cleveland , that protected and preserved buffalo and other wildlife in Yellowstone.

This was the first law in U. In , around two thousand white buffalo hunters working between Kansas, and Arkansas were killing buffalo for their hides by the many thousands. The demand was for boots for European armies, or machine belts attached to steam engines. Acres of land were dedicated solely for drying the hides of the slaughtered buffalo. Native Americans protested at the "wanton destruction" of their food supply. Between in , the buffalo herd south of the Platte River yielded 4.

Taking advice from Secretary Delano, Grant chose to pocket-veto the bill, believing that the demise of the buffalo would reduce Indian wars and force tribes to stay on their respected reservations and to adopt an agricultural lifestyle rather than roaming the plains and hunting buffalo.

With the buffalo food supply lowered, Native Americans were forced to stay on reservations. In September , financial manipulators Jay Gould and Jim Fisk set up an elaborate scam to corner the gold market through buying up all the gold at the same time to drive up the price.

The plan was to keep the Government from selling gold, thus driving its price. Grant and Secretary of Treasury George S. Gould and Fisk were thwarted, and the price of gold dropped. The effects of releasing the gold by Boutwell were disastrous. Stock prices plunged and food prices dropped, devastating farmers for years. The reform of the spoils system of political patronage entered the national agenda under the Grant Presidency, that would take on the fervor of a religious revival.

Cox and Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell put in place examinations in their respected departments advocated by reformers. Historian John Simon says his efforts at civil service reform were honest, but that they were met with criticism from all sides and were a failure. Grant was the first president to recommend a professional civil service. He pushed the initial legislation through Congress, and appointed the members for the first United States Civil Service Commission.

The temporary Commission recommended administering competitive exams and issuing regulations on the hiring and promotion of government employees.

Grant ordered their recommendations in effect in ; having lasted for two years until December At the New York Custom House, a port that took in hundreds of millions of dollars a year in revenue, applicants for an entry position now had to pass a written civil service examination.

Arthur who was appointed by Grant as New York Custom Collector stated that the examinations excluded and deterred unfit persons from getting employment positions.

Historians have traditionally been divided whether patronage , meaning appointments made without a merit system, should be labeled corruption. The movement for Civil Service reform reflected two distinct objectives: Although many reformers after the Election of looked to Grant to ram Civil Service legislation through Congress, he refused, saying:.

Grant used patronage to build his party and help his friends. He protected those whom he thought were the victims of injustice or attacks by his enemies, even if they were guilty. In the early s during the Grant Administration, lucrative postal route contracts were given to local contractors on the Pacific Coast and Southern regions of the United States. These were known as Star Routes because an asterisk was given on official Post Office documents.

These remote routes were hundreds of miles long and went to the most rural parts of the United States by horse and buggy. In obtaining these highly prized postal contracts, an intricate ring of bribery and straw bidding was set up in the Postal Contract office; the ring consisted of contractors, postal clerks, and various intermediary brokers.

Straw bidding was at its highest practice while John Creswell , Grant's appointment, was Postmaster-General. An federal investigation into the matter exonerated Creswell, but he was censured by the minority House report. In , another congressional investigation under a Democratic House shut down the postal ring for a few years. Prior to the Presidential Election of two congressional and one Treasury Department investigations took place over corruption at the New York Custom House under Grant collector appointments Moses H.

Grinnell and Thomas Murphy. Private warehouses were taking imported goods from the docks and charging shippers storage fees. Grant's friend, George K. Leet, was allegedly involved with exorbitant pricing for storing goods and splitting the profits.

Arthur , implemented Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell 's reform to keep the goods protected on the docks rather than private storage. Representatives also received a retroactive pay bonus for previous two years of service.

This was done in secret and attached to a general appropriations bill. Reforming newspapers quickly exposed the law and the bonus was repealed in January Grant missed an opportunity to veto the bill and to make a strong statement for good government.

As his first term entered its final year, Grant remained popular throughout the nation despite the accusations of corruption that were swirling around his administration. When Republicans gathered for their national convention he was unanimously nominated for a second term. The parry platform advocated high tariffs and a continuation of Radical Reconstruction policies that supported five military districts in the Southern states.

During Grant's first term a significant number of Republicans had become completely disillusioned with the party. Weary of the scandals and opposed to several of Grant's policies, split from the party to form the Liberal Republican Party. At the party's only national convention, held in May New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley was nominated for president, and Benjamin Gratz Brown was nominated for vice president.

They advocated civil service reform, a low tariff, and granting amnesty to former Confederate soldiers. They also wanted to end reconstruction and restore local self-government in the South.

The Democrats, who at this time had no strong candidate choice of their own, saw an opportunity to consolidate the anti-Grant vote and jumped on the Greeley bandwagon, reluctantly adopting Greeley and Brown as their nominees.

While Grant, like incumbent presidents before him, did not campaign, an efficient party organization composed of thousands of patronage appointees, did so on his behalf.

His campaign was plagued by misstatements and embarrassing moments. However, because of political infighting between Liberal Republicans and Democrats, and due to several campaign blunders, the physically ailing Greeley was no match for Grant, who won in a landslide. Grant won of the Electoral College votes, and received The President's reelection victory also brought an overwhelming Republican majority into both houses of Congress.

Heartbroken after a hard-fought political campaign, Greeley died a few weeks after the election. Out of respect for Greeley, Grant attended his funeral. The second inauguration of Ulysses Grant's Presidency was held on Tuesday, March 4, , commencing the second four-year term his presidency.

Subsequently, the inaugural ball ended early when the food froze. Wilson died 2 years, days into this term, and the office remained vacant for the balance of it. Departing from the White House, a parade escorted Grant down the newly paved Pennsylvania Avenue, which was all decorated with banners and flags, on to the swearing-in ceremony in front of the Capitol building.

Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase administered the presidential oath of office. This was one of the coldest inaugurations in U. After the swearing-in ceremony the inaugural parade commenced down Pennsylvania. The Evening Star observed.

The military units, in their fancy regalia, were the most noticeable. Altogether there were approximately 12, marchers who participated, including several units of African-American soldiers.

At the inaugural ball there were some 6, people in attendance. Great care was taken to ensure that Grant's inaugural ball would be in spacious quarters and would feature an elegant assortment of appetizers, food, and champagne. A large temporary wooden building was constructed at Judiciary Square to accommodate the event.

Grant arrived around Grant was vigorous in his enforcement of the 14th and 15th amendments and prosecuted thousands of persons who violated African American civil rights; he used military force to put down political insurrections in Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina.

He used his full powers to weaken the Ku Klux Klan , reducing violence and intimidation in the South. Grant retaliated, firing men Sumner had recommended and having allies strip Sumner of his chairmanship of the Foreign Relations Committee.

Sumner joined the Liberal Republican movement in to fight Grant's reelection. Conservative resistance to Republican state governments grew after the elections. With the destruction of the Klan in , new secret paramilitary organizations arose in the Deep South. Their goals were to oust the Republicans, return Conservative whites to power, and use whatever illegal methods needed to achieve them.

Being loyal to his veterans, Grant remained determined that African Americans would receive protection. Polygamy, Chinese prostitution, support of Jewish people, and secular education were also issues during Reconstruction. After the November 4, , election, Louisiana was a split state. In a controversial election, two candidates were claiming victory as governor.

Violence was used to intimidate black Republicans. Two months later each candidate was sworn in as governor on January 13, A federal judge ruled that Kellogg was the rightful winner of the election and ordered him and the Republican-based majority to be seated. Grant ordered troops to enforce the court order and protect Kellogg. On March 4, Federal troops under a flag of truce and Kellogg's state militia defeated McEnry's fusionist party's insurrection. A dispute arose over who would be installed as judge and sheriff at the Colfax courthouse in Grant Parish.

Kellogg's two appointees had seized control of the Court House on March 25 with aid and protection of black state militia troops. Then on April 13, White League forces attacked the courthouse and massacred 50 black militiamen who had been captured.

A total of blacks were killed trying to defend the Colfax courthouse for Governor Kellogg. On April 21, Grant sent in the U. On May 22, Grant issued a new proclamation to restore order in Louisiana. On May 31, McEnry finally told his followers to obey "peremptory orders" of the President. The orders brought a brief peace to New Orleans and most of Louisiana, except, ironically, Grant Parish.

In the fall of , the Republican party split in Arkansas and ran two candidates for governor, Elisha Baxter and Joseph Brooks. Massive fraud characterized the election, but Baxter was declared the winner and took office. Brooks never gave up; finally, in , a local judge ruled Brooks was entitled to the office and swore him in. Both sides mobilized militia units, and rioting and fighting bloodied the streets.

Speculation swirled as to who President Grant would side with — either Baxter or Brooks. Grant delayed, requesting a joint session of the Arkansas government to figure out peacefully who would be the Governor, but Baxter refused to participate. On May 15, , Grant issued a Proclamation that Baxter was the legitimate Governor of Arkansas, and hostilities ceased. A few months later in early , Grant announced that Brooks had been legitimately elected back in Grant did not send in troops, and Brooks never regained office.

Grant's legalistic approach Did resolve the conflict peacefully, but it left the Republican Party in Arkansas in total disarray, and further discredited grants reputation. In August , the Vicksburg city government elected White reform party candidates consisting of Republicans and Democrats.

They promised to lower city spending and taxes. Despite such intentions, the reform movement turned racist when the new White city officials went after the county government, which had a majority of African Americans. Crosby sought help from Republican Governor Adelbert Ames to regain his position as sheriff.

Governor Ames told him to take other African Americans and use force to retain his lawful position. At that time Vicksburg had a population of 12,, more than half of whom were African American. He had said that the Whites were, "ruffians, barbarians, and political banditti ". The White militia retained control of the County Court House and jail.

On December 21, Grant issued a Presidential Proclamation for the people in Vicksburg to stop fighting. General Philip Sheridan , based in Louisiana for this regional territory, dispatched federal troops, who reinstated Crosby as sheriff and restored the peace. When questioned about the matter, Governor Ames denied that he had told Crosby to use African-American militia. On June 7, , Crosby was shot to death by a white deputy while drinking in a bar.

The origins of the shooting remained a mystery. Kellogg was forced to flee. Former Confederate General James A. Longstreet , with 3, African American militia and Metropolitan police, made a counterattack on the 8, White League troops.

Consisting of former Confederate soldiers, the experienced White League troops routed Longstreet's army. On September 17, Grant sent in Federal troops, and they restored the government back to Kellogg. During the following controversial election in November, passions rose high, and violence mixed with fraud were rampant; the state of affairs in New Orleans was becoming out of control.

The results were that 53 Republicans and 53 Democrats were elected with 5 remaining seats to be decided by the legislature. Grant had been careful to watch the elections and secretly sent Phil Sheridan in to keep law and order in the state. Sheridan had arrived in New Orleans a few days before the January 4, , legislature opening meeting. At the convention the Democrats again with military force took control of the state building out of Republican hands.

However, Governor Kellogg then requested that Trobriand reseat the Republicans. Trobriand returned to the Statehouse and used bayonets to force the Democrats out of the building. The Republicans then organized their own house with their own speakers all being protected by the Federal Army.

Sheridan, who had annexed the Department of the Gulf to his command at 9: Throughout his presidency, Grant was continually concerned with the civil rights of all Americans, "irrespective of nationality, color, or religion.

This was done particularly to protect African Americans who were discriminated across United States. The bill was also passed in honor of Senator Charles Sumner who had previously attempted to pass a civil rights bill in Treat the Negro as a citizen and a voter, as he is and must remain

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Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, – July 23, ) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.

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Late in the administration of Andrew Johnson, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant quarreled with the President and aligned himself with the Radical Republicans. He was, as the symbol of Union victory during the Civil War, their logical candidate for President in

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Dec 11,  · Ulysses Grant () commanded the victorious Union army during the American Civil War () and served as the 18th U.S. president from to An Ohio native, Grant graduated from West Point and fought in the Mexican-American War (). Civil War Ulysses S Grant was the commander of Union forces during the Civil War. Learn more about the war, its battles, and more with this overview. Top 10 Presidential Scandals Ulysses S Grant was president during three of these top ten presidential scandals that occurred throughout the years.

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Learn term:ulysses s. grant = 15th amendment with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of term:ulysses s. grant = 15th amendment flashcards on Quizlet. Watch video · President Ulysses S. Grant was born Hiram Ulysses Grant on April, 27, , in Point Pleasant, Ohio, near the mouth of the Big Indian Creek at the Ohio River. His famous moniker, "U.S. Grant.