The following video, Quantitative vs. Qualitative Data, defines quantitative data, discusses the types of quantitative data and describes how the data can be analyzed. Examples of Data Collection Methods — Following is a link to a chart of data collection methods that examines types of data collection, advantages and challenges.
Research Methods — The following link describes compares qualitative and quantitative research methodology including a discussion of data collection and types of data. Data Colection — Quantitative Research — This resources provides links to information relating to a variety of ways to collect quantitative data. Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection Methods - The link below provides specific example of instruments and methods used to collect quantitative data.
This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Quantitative Data This module describes quantitative data and examines common methods of data collection in quantitative studies. Define quantitative data and its characteristics. Explain the difference between discrete and continuous data. List examples of quantitative data. Describe common methods of quantitative data collection.
This personal history therefore forms the filter through which the data will be examined. This filter does not diminish the quality or significance of the analysis, since every researcher has his or her own filters; however, by explicitly stating and acknowledging what these filters are, the researcher makes it easer for readers to contextualize the work.
For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have been audio-recorded. As mentioned above, transcribing is an arduous process, even for the most experienced transcribers, but it must be done to convert the spoken word to the written word to facilitate analysis.
For anyone new to conducting qualitative research, it is beneficial to transcribe at least one interview and one focus group. It is only by doing this that researchers realize how difficult the task is, and this realization affects their expectations when asking others to transcribe. If the research project has sufficient funding, then a professional transcriber can be hired to do the work.
If this is the case, then it is a good idea to sit down with the transcriber, if possible, and talk through the research and what the participants were talking about.
This background knowledge for the transcriber is especially important in research in which people are using jargon or medical terms as in pharmacy practice. Involving your transcriber in this way makes the work both easier and more rewarding, as he or she will feel part of the team. Transcription editing software is also available, but it is expensive. For example, ELAN more formally known as EUDICO Linguistic Annotator, developed at the Technical University of Berlin 8 is a tool that can help keep data organized by linking media and data files particularly valuable if, for example, video-taping of interviews is complemented by transcriptions.
It can also be helpful in searching complex data sets. Products such as ELAN do not actually automatically transcribe interviews or complete analyses, and they do require some time and effort to learn; nonetheless, for some research applications, it may be a valuable to consider such software tools. All audio recordings should be transcribed verbatim, regardless of how intelligible the transcript may be when it is read back.
Lines of text should be numbered. Once the transcription is complete, the researcher should read it while listening to the recording and do the following: Dealing with the transcription of a focus group is slightly more difficult, as multiple voices are involved. In addition, the focus group will usually have 2 facilitators, whose respective roles will help in making sense of the data. While one facilitator guides participants through the topic, the other can make notes about context and group dynamics.
While continuing with the processes of coding and theming described in the next 2 sections , it is important to consider not just what the person is saying but also what they are not saying.
For example, is a lengthy pause an indication that the participant is finding the subject difficult, or is the person simply deciding what to say? Smith 9 suggested a qualitative research method known as interpretative phenomenological analysis, which has 2 basic tenets: Larkin and others 10 discussed the importance of not just providing a description of what participants say.
Rather, interpretative phenomenological analysis is about getting underneath what a person is saying to try to truly understand the world from his or her perspective. Once all of the research interviews have been transcribed and checked, it is time to begin coding.
Field notes compiled during an interview can be a useful complementary source of information to facilitate this process, as the gap in time between an interview, transcribing, and coding can result in memory bias regarding nonverbal or environmental context issues that may affect interpretation of data.
Coding can be done by hand on a hard copy of the transcript, by making notes in the margin or by highlighting and naming sections of text. More commonly, researchers use qualitative research software e. It is advised that researchers undertake a formal course in the use of such software or seek supervision from a researcher experienced in these tools.
If we read a little more deeply, we can ask ourselves how the participant might have come to feel that the doctor assumed he or she was aware of the diagnosis or indeed that they had only just been told the diagnosis. There are a number of pauses in the narrative that might suggest the participant is finding it difficult to recall that experience. At the end of this excerpt, the participant just trails off, recalling that no-one showed any interest, which makes for very moving reading. There are no statistical tests that can be used to check reliability and validity as there are in quantitative research.
This simple act can result in revisions to the codes and can help to clarify and confirm the research findings. Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way. Thus, when the findings are organized for presentation, each theme can become the heading of a section in the report or presentation. Implications for real life e. This synthesis is the aim of the final stage of qualitative research.
There are a number of ways in which researchers can synthesize and present their findings, but any conclusions drawn by the researchers must be supported by direct quotations from the participants. The work of Latif and others 12 gives an example of how qualitative research findings might be presented. As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report.
The final presentation of the research will usually be in the form of a report or a paper and so should follow accepted academic guidelines. In particular, the article should begin with an introduction, including a literature review and rationale for the research. There should be a section on the chosen methodology and a brief discussion about why qualitative methodology was most appropriate for the study question and why one particular methodology e.
The method itself should then be described, including ethics approval, choice of participants, mode of recruitment, and method of data collection e. The findings should be written as if a story is being told; as such, it is not necessary to have a lengthy discussion section at the end.
As stated earlier, it is not the intention of qualitative research to allow the findings to be generalized, and therefore this is not, in itself, a limitation. Planning out the way that findings are to be presented is helpful. It is useful to insert the headings of the sections the themes and then make a note of the codes that exemplify the thoughts and feelings of your participants.
It is generally advisable to put in the quotations that you want to use for each theme, using each quotation only once. But if they let the subject choose her answer from a set of options, what just took place is a closed, structured and fixed-response interview.
Focus groups method is basically an interview method, but done in a group discussion setting. When the object of the data is behaviors and attitudes, particularly in social situations, and resources for one-on-one interviews are limited, using the focus group approach is highly recommended. Ideally, the focus group should have at least 3 people and a moderator to around 10 to 13 people maximum, plus a moderator. Depending on the data being sought, the members of the group should have something in common.
For example, a researcher conducting a study on the recovery of married mothers from alcoholism will choose women who are 1 married, 2 have kids, and 3 recovering alcoholics. Other parameters such as the age, employment status, and income bracketdo not have to be similar across the members of the focus group.
The topic that data will be collected about will be presented to the group, and the moderator will open the floor for a debate. This method involves the use of previously existing and reliable documents and other sources of information as a source of data to be used in a new research or investigation. This is likened to how the data collector will go to a library and go over the books and other references for information relevant to what he is currently researching on. In this method, the researcher takes a participatory stance, immersing himself in the setting where his respondents are, and generally taking a look at everything, while taking down notes.
Aside from note-taking, other documentation methods may be used, such as video and audio recording, photography, and the use of tangible items such as artifacts, mementoes, and other tools.
This is a research or data collection method that is performed repeatedly, on the same data sources, over an extended period of time. It is an observational research method that could even cover a span of years and, in some cases, even decades.
The goal is to find correlations through an empirical or observational study of subjects with a common trait or characteristic. The study aimed to gather data on the characteristics of gifted children — and how they grow and develop — over their lifetime. Terman started in , and it extended over the lifespan of the subjects, more than 1, boys and girls aged 3 to 19 years old, and with IQs higher than However, the strength of a case study as a data collection method is attributed to how it utilizes other data collection methods, and captures more variables than when a single methodology is used.
In analyzing the case study, the researcher may employ other methods such as interviewing, floating questionnaires, or conducting group discussions in order to gather data. Data can be readily quantified and generated into numerical form, which will then be converted and processed into useful information mathematically. The result is often in the form of statistics that is meaningful and, therefore, useful. Unlike qualitative methods, these quantitative techniques usually make use of larger sample sizes because its measurable nature makes that possible and easier.
Unlike the open-ended questions asked in qualitative questionnaires, quantitative paper surveys pose closed questions, with the answer options provided. The respondents will only have to choose their answer among the choices provided on the questionnaire.
Personal one-on-one interviews may also be used for gathering quantitative data. In collecting quantitative data, the interview is more structured than when gathering qualitative data, comprised of a prepared set of standard questions. This is straightforward enough. Data may be collected through systematic observation by, say, counting the number of users present and currently accessing services in a specific area, or the number of services being used within a designated vicinity.
Have you ever wondered where clinical trials fall? They are considered to be a form of experiment, and are quantitative in nature.
These methods involve manipulation of an independent variable, while maintaining varying degrees of control over other variables, most likely the dependent ones. Usually, this is employed to obtain data that will be used later on for analysis of relationships and correlations. Quantitative researches often make use of experiments to gather data, and the types of experiments are:.
You can probably name several other data collection methods, but the ones discussed are the most commonly used approaches. The correct usage of these methods will also have a bearing on the quality and integrity of the data being sought. E-mail is already registered on the site. Please use the Login form or enter another. You entered an incorrect username or password. Affiliate marketing became an online trend when online retailers found that they could add a new ….
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Quantitative data collection methods are based on random sampling and structured data collection instruments. Findings of quantitative studies are usually easy .
COLLECTION METHODS 5. DATA COLLECTION METHODS: SOME TIPS AND COMPARISONS In the previous chapter, we identified two broad types of evaluation supervision to yield trustworthy data. Some quantitative research methods can be mastered easily with the help of simple training manuals;.
Quantitative and Qualitative Data collection methods. The Quantitative data collection methods, rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. They produce results that . Overview of Qualitative And Quantitative Data Collection Methods Much of the workings of the world today are controlled and powered by information, giving .
Data Colection – Quantitative Research – This resources provides links to information relating to a variety of ways to collect quantitative data. Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection Methods - The link below provides specific example of instruments and methods used to collect quantitative data. Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering.